Chao Liu, Robert Carrera, Vittoria Flamini, Lena Kenny, Pamela Cabahug-Zuckerman, Benson M. George, Daniel Hunter, Bo Liu, Gurpreet Singh, Philipp Leucht, Kenneth A. Mann, Jill A. Helms, Alesha B. Castillo. Effects of mechanical loading on cortical defect repair using a novel mechanobiological model of bone healing. Bone. Volume 108, March 2018, Pages 145-155.




Bradaschia-Correa V, Josephson AM, Mehta D, Mizrahi M, Neibart SS, Liu C, Kennedy OD, Castillo AB, Egol KA, Leucht P. The selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor fluoxetine directly inhibits osteoblast differentiation and mineralization during fracture healing in mice. Journal of Bone and Mineral Research. 2016. In press.

Liu C, Cui X, Ackermann T, Flamini V, Chen W, Castillo AB. Osteoblast-derived paracrine factors regulate angiogenesis in response to mechanical stimulation. Integrative Biology, 2016, DOI: 10.1039/C6IB00070C.


Castillo AB, Introduction for the special issue: Fracture healing and bone regeneration. Clinical Reviews in Bone & Mineral Metabolism. 2015 13(4):207 [Editorial].

Castillo AB and Leucht P. Bone homeostasis and repair: Forced into shape. Current Rheumatology Reports. 2015 Sep;17(9):537. PMID: 26233599.

Shirazi-Fard Y, Alwood JS, Schreurs AS, Castillo AB, Globus RK. Mechanical loading causes site-specific anabolic effects on bone following exposure to ionizing radiation. Bone. 2015 Jul 18;81:260-269. PMID: 26191778.

Wu C, Rankin EB, Castellini L, Fernandez-Alcudia J, LaGory EL, Andersen R, Rhodes SD, Wilson TLS, Mohammad KS, Castillo AB, Guise TA, Schipani E, Giaccia AJ. Oxygen sensing PHDs regulate bone homeostasis through the modulation of osteoprotegerin. Genes and Development. 2015 Apr 15;29(8):817-31. PMID: 25846796.

Norman SC, Wagner DW, Beaupre GS, Castillo AB. Comparison of three methods of calculating strain in the mouse ulna in exogenous loading studies. J Biomech. 2015 Jan 2;48(1):53-8. PubMed PMID: 25443882.


Castillo AB, Triplett JW, Pavalko FM, Turner CH. Estrogen receptor-β regulates mechanical signaling in primary osteoblasts. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15;306(8):E937-44. PubMed PMID: 24619882; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3989741.

Farnebo S, Woon C YL, Bronstein JA, Schmitt T, Lindsey DP, Pham H, Castillo AB, Chang J. Decellularized tendon-bone composite grafts for extremity reconstruction: an experimental study. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2014 Jan;133(1):79-89. PubMed PMID: 24374670.


Leucht P, Temiyasathit S, Russell A, Argüello J, Jacobs CR, Helms JA, Castillo AB. CXCR4 antagonism attenuates load-induced periosteal bone formation in mice. J Orthop Res. 2013 Nov;31(11):1828-38. PubMed PMID: 23881789.

Wagner DW, Chan S, Castillo AB, and Beaupre GS. Geometric mouse variation: implications to the axial ulnar loading protocol and animal specific calibration. J Biomech. 2013 Sep 3;46(13):2271-6. PubMed PMID: 23880439.

Leucht P, Jiang J, Cheng D, Liu B, Dhamdhere G, Fang M, Monica S, Urena JJ, Cole W, Smith RL, Castillo AB, Longaker MT, Helms JA. Wnt3a reestablishes osteogenic capacity to bone grafts from aged animals. J Bone Joint Surg Am. 2013 Jul 17;95(14):1278-88. PubMed PMID: 23864176; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3748990.

Bronstein JA, Woo CYL, Farnebo S, Behn AW, Schmitt T, Pham H, Castillo AB, Chang J. Physicochemical decellularization of composite flexor tendon-bone interface grafts. Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Jul;132(1):94-102. PubMed PMID: 23806913.

Leucht P, Castillo AB, Bellino MJ. Comparison of tricalcium phosphate cement and cancellous autograft as bone void filler in acetabular fractures with marginal impaction.Injury. 2013 Jul;44(7):969-74. PubMed PMID: 23684351.


Temiyasathit S, Tang WJ, Leucht P, Castillo AB, Helms JT, Stearns T, Jacobs CR. Mechanosensing by the primary cilium: deletion of Kif3A reduces bone formation due to loading.PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33368. PubMed PMID: 22428034; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3299788.

Castillo AB, Blundo JT, Chen JC, Lee KL, Yereddi NR, Jang E, Kumar S, Tang WJ, Zarrin S, Jacobs CR. Focal adhesion kinase plays a role in osteoblast mechanotransduction in vitrobut does not affect load-induced bone formation in vivo. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e43291. PubMed PMID: 23028449; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3448625.

2010 and earlier

Arnsdorf E, Tummala P, Castillo AB, Zhang F, Jacobs CR. The epigenetic mechanisms of mechanically induced osteogenic differentiation. J Biomech. 2010 Nov 16;43(15):2881-6. PubMed PMID: 20728889; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2975768.

Litzenberger JB, Tang WJ, Castillo AB, Jacobs CR. Deletion of b1 integrins from cortical osteocytes reduces load-induced bone formation. Cellular and Molecular Bioengineering.2009 2(3):416-24 (DOI: 10.1007/s12195-009-0068-4).

McGee-Lawrence ME, Wojda SJ, Barlow LN, Drummer TD, Castillo AB, Kennedy O, Condon KW, Auger J, Black HL, Nelson OL, Robbins CT, Donahue SW. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Bone. 2009 Dec;45(6):1186-91. PubMed PMID: 19703606; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2783552.

Anderson C, Castillo AB, Brugmann SA, Helms JA, Jacobs CR, Sterns T. Primary cilia: cellular sensors for the skeleton. Anat Rec (Hoboken). 2008 Sep;291(9):1074-8. PubMed PMID: 18727074; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2879613.

Saxon LK, Robling AG, Castillo AB, Mohan S, Turner CH. The skeletal responsiveness to mechanical loading is enhanced in mice with a null mutation in estrogen receptor-b. 2007 Aug;293(2):E484-91. PubMed PMID: 17535856.

Hazelwood SJ and Castillo AB. Simulated effects of marathon training on bone density, remodeling, and microdamage accumulation of the femur. International Journal of Fatigue. 2007 29(6):1057-64.

Warden SJ, Fuchs RK, Castillo AB, Nelson IR, Turner CH. Exercise when young provides lifelong benefits to bone structure and strength. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Feb;22(2):251-9. PubMed PMID: 17129172.

Warden SJ, Saxon L, Castillo AB, Turner CH. Knee ligament mechanical properties are not influenced by estrogen or its receptors. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab290:E1034-E1040.

Castillo AB, Levenda JP, Pavlik M, Warden SJ, Li J, Turner CH. The effects of low amplitude, broad frequency vibration on cortical bone adaptation in adult female mice. Bone.2006 Nov;39(5):1087-96. PubMed PMID: 16793358.

Warden SJ, Fuchs RK, Castillo AB, Turner CH. Does exercise during growth influence osteoporotic fracture later in life? J Musculoskelet Neuronal Interact. 2005 Oct-Dec;5(4):344-6. PubMed PMID: 16340131.

Van Rompay KK, Brignolo LL, Meyer DJ, Jerome C, Tarara R, Spinner A, Hamilton M, Hirst LL, Bennett DR, Canfield DR, Dearman TG, Von Morgenland W, Allen PC, Valverde C,Castillo AB, Martin RB, Samii VF, Bendele R, Desjardins J, Marthas ML, Pedersen NC, Bischofberger N. Biological effects of short-term or prolonged administration of 9-[2-(phosphonomethoxy) propyl]adenine (tenofovir) to newborn and infant rhesus macaques. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2004 May;48(5):1469-87. PubMed PMID: 15105094; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC400569.

Castillo AB, Tarantal AF, Watnik MR, Martin RB. Tenofovir treatment at 30 mg/kg/day can inhibit cortical bone mineralization in growing rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta). J Orthop Res. 2002 Nov;20(6):1185-9. PubMed PMID: 12472227.

Tarantal AF, Castillo A, Ekert JE, Bischofberger N, Martin RB. Fetal and maternal outcome after administration of tenofovir to gravid rhesus monkeys. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Mar 1;29(3):207-20. PubMed PMID: 11873070.



Liu C and Castillo AB. Targeting Osteogenesis-Angiogenesis Coupling for Bone Repair. Review Section: On the Horizon from the ORS. Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons. In review.

Chen JC, Castillo AB, Jacobs CR. Cellular and Molecular Mechanotransduction in Bone In: Osteoporosis, 4th Edition. R. Marcus (Ed.), Academic Press, Waltham, MA. 2013 Volume 1, Chapter 20, pages 453-475. ISBN: 978-0-12-415853-5.

Castillo AB and Jacobs CR. Skeletal Mechanobiology. In: Mechanobiology Handbook. J. Nagatomi (Ed.), CRC Press, Boca Raton. 2011 Volume 9, pages 179-228. ISBN: 978-1-4200-9121-2.

Castillo AB, Jacobs CR. Mesenchymal Stem Cell Mechanobiology. Curr Osteoporos Rep. 2010 Jun;8(2):98-104. PubMed PMID: 20425617.

Jacobs CR, Temiyasathit S, Castillo AB. Osteocyte Mechanobiology and Pericellular Mechanics. Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, 2010 Volume 12, pages 369-400. Pubmed PMID: 20617941.

Robling AR, Castillo AB, Turner CH. Biomechanical and molecular regulation of bone remodeling. Annu Rev Biomed Eng. 2006;8:455-98. PubMed PMID: 16834564.